The U.S. government has long recognized that people with compromised immune systems should be given more attention, but that is now under scrutiny in the wake of a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
As part of the ACOG’s initiative to better understand the health of pregnant women and their infants, the researchers analyzed a national survey of about 20,000 women ages 18-49 from 2006 to 2014.
They found that the CDC had recorded 2,828 new cases of toxoplasmosis (the most commonly reported infection) among pregnant women, and nearly 2,400 new cases among infants ages 2-11.
That is, about a third of pregnant and newborns were at risk for the illness.
The CDC, however, did not make it clear when a pregnant woman was most likely to develop toxoplasma infection, and its survey did not include information on the number of other pregnant women who might have contracted the illness, nor did it include information about whether a woman had symptoms or whether the infection was mild or severe.
In addition, the CDC did not provide information about the frequency of toxo during pregnancy, how the disease spread, or how often people in the United States develop symptoms.
“Our goal was to create an information system that is accurate, complete, and transparent,” said Dr. Jeffrey M. Osterholm, the study’s lead author.
The researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, or NHANES, which began in 1993 and is conducted every four years.
They also reviewed data from a separate survey that collected data on a sample of the general population for more than a decade, beginning in 2005.
The data gathered by the two surveys were used to create a national database of health information for pregnant women.
“This survey provides us with a good foundation for an understanding of how the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the United Nations health agencies have done things differently than the United.
States,” said Osterheim.
The two studies were conducted in collaboration with researchers from the University of New Hampshire.
Both used a computer program that combines data from NHANes with data from other government and private sources, such as the CDC and the Centers For Disease Control.
Both studies relied on publicly available data from both surveys and were funded by the CDC.
The studies used different methods to identify and analyze the data.
The survey data used in the CDC survey included information about a pregnant women’s history of toxonoplasmos.
The NHANE data included information on her prenatal and postnatal care.
Data collected from the ACog survey included health information about her health during pregnancy and during her pregnancy.
In both cases, the authors said they used the same methodology for both sets of data.
In each case, they used similar data sets to develop the national databases and used statistical methods to estimate the numbers of cases and cases per 1,000 people.
To estimate the number and rates of new cases and infections among pregnant and neonatal populations, the NHANEs and ACOGs were combined into one data set, the National Vital Statistics System.
To account for variations in the sample size and characteristics of the participants, the data used to construct the databases were adjusted to account for differences in age, race/ethnicity, marital status, ethnicity, and education.
“We were interested in looking at different ways that data might be interpreted,” Osterholms said.
“How does this affect the numbers and rates?
What about the health implications?
These are questions we wanted to address.”
The findings from the CDC study were published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.
“The data is not the same as what the CDC has collected,” said Michael M. Smith, a professor of epidemiology at the University at Buffalo, New York.
“There is an inherent uncertainty in what is being reported.”
The CDC does not use any statistical methods that adjust for the number or frequency of missing data in its survey data.
For example, in the NHANSES survey, the survey does not provide estimates for how often pregnant women had symptoms of toxocara.
The ACOG survey does provide estimates, but the researchers said they did not consider these to be relevant because they do not control for how much of the population is experiencing symptoms of the disease.
“If you look at the raw data, you can see that some women were missing very small amounts of data, like, 10 percent of the data,” Oosterholm said.
Other data sources were used in both studies to provide information on other aspects of a womans health.
In the NHanses survey, women with elevated risk for toxoplasmia were more likely to report symptoms than those with lower levels of toxophiluria, and women with lower risk for symptoms were more than twice as likely to have a milder